Атмосфера. Слои атмосферы. Почему небо голубое.


Атмосфера – газообразная оболочка, окружающая Землю. Она удерживается на месте силой притяжения Земли, под действием которой большая часть газов скапливается над поверхностью земли – в самом нижнем слое атмосферы– тропосфере.

Мы живём в самом нижнем слое атмосферы. Самолёты курсируют в слое, называемой атмосферой. Такие явления, как полярные сияния в Северном и Южном полушарии возникают в термосфере. Выше находится космос.

Оболочки Земли

Слои атмосферы

Сколько слоёв в атмосфере?

Существует пять основных слоёв атмосферы. Самый нижний слой– тропосфера – высотой 18 км от поверхности земли. Следующий слой – стратосфера простирается до высоты 50 км, выше – мезосфера – около 80 км над землёй. Самый верхний слой называется термосферой. Чем выше подниматься, тем менее плотной становится атмосфера; выше 1000 км земная атмосфера почти исчезает, и экзосфера(очень разряжённый пятый слой) переходит в безвоздушное пространство.

Как атмосфера защищает нас?

В стратосфере находится слой озона (соединение трёх атомов кислорода), который образует защитный экран, сдерживающий большую часть вредных ультрафиолетовых излучений. На границе атмосферы есть две радиационные зоны,известные как пояса Ван Аллена, которые также как щит отражают космические лучи.

Почему небо синего цвета?

Свет от солнца проходит через атмосферу и рассеивается,отражаясь от мелких частичек пыли и водяных паров, находящихся в воздухе. Так белый солнечный свет разбивается на спектральные части – цвета радуги.Синие лучи рассеиваются быстрее, чем остальные. В результате мы видим больше синего цвета, чем любых других цветов солнечного спектра, поэтому небо кажется синим.



Облака всё время меняют форму. Причина этого -ветер. Одни вздымаются огромными массами, другие напоминают лёгкие пёрышки. Иногда облака полностью закрывают небо над нами.

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