Древние художники. Первобытное искусство. Пещера Ласко.

Открытие древних пещерных художественных галерей потрясло мир. Первой обнаружили пещеру Ласко с картинами возрастом 17 000 лет. Затем были находки в Коске — им 28 000 лет. Но открытие в 1994 г. пещеры Шове на юге Франции позволило по-новому взглянуть на творения художественного гения человечества.

Древние художники

Около 200 пещер на юге Франции и на севере Испании были украшены рисунками и рельефами, большинство из которых относится к периоду между 20 000 и 10 000 гг. до н.э. Эта одна из самых близких нам по времени культур была названа мадленской по пещере Ла-Мадлен (Франция). Это был единственный период в истории, кроме нашего, когда люди так глубоко проникали под землю: добираться до пещер надо около часа. На рисунках изображены животные (лошади, бизоны, бараны, мамонты, носороги, кошачьи). Изображения расположены в строгом порядке, их последовательность не является случайной; очевидно, что пещеры служили святилищами, сакральное значение которых нам неизвестно. Там также найдены многочисленные рисунки абстрактных символов. Некоторые находки позволяют говорить о местах совершения обрядов (очаги, жертвенники и т.д.).

Пещера Ласко

Пещера Ласко (департамент Дордонь, Франция) обнаружена в 1940 г. Четырьмя школьниками. Вскоре её закрыли для посетителей, так как присутствие большого количества людей изменило состав воздуха в пещере и вызвало повреждение рисунков. С 1983 г. Была открыта точная копия пещеры Ласко, надо было понять, как древние мастера рисовали, откуда брали краски, чем их наносили.

Наскальный рисунок пещеры Ласко

Наскальный рисунок пещеры Ласко

Художники и археологи работали бок о бок. Учёные рылись в земле в поисках охры (красной смеси гидроксидов железа и марганца), гематита, угля и цветной глины – сырья, растирая которое, древние получали свои краски. Экспериментируя, современные художники-реставраторы наносили их на камень пальцами, кусочками меха, пучками травы или порошком, выдуваемых из соломинок. Как и предки, они работали при колеблющемся свете горевшего в пещере огня.

235 thoughts on “Древние художники. Первобытное искусство. Пещера Ласко.

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