Пещера. Спелеолог. Сталактиты. Сталагмиты. Отличия. Самые глубокие пещеры.

Под землёй

Знаешь ли ты, что в некоторых районах нашей планеты под землёй есть пещеры – углубления, или полые пространства. Многие из них были образованы в горных массивах водой, просочившейся с поверхности. Некоторые пещеры так велики, что их можно сравнить с огромным полем! В других растут необычные образования – сталактиты и сталагмиты. Людей, изучающих пещеры, называют исследователями пещер – спелеологами и спортсменами-спелеологами.

Где находятся самые длинные пещеры?

Это Мамонтовы пещеры в Кентукки (США), впервые исследованные в 1799 году. Пещеры представляют собой систему (коридоры, переходы, подземные озёра и реки) протяжённостью 560 км.

Как отличить сталактит от сталагмита?

Сталактит – известковый нарост (сосулька), свисающий вниз с потолка пещеры. В одной из пещер Бразилии вырос сталактит длиной более 12 метров. Сталагмиты растут со дна пещеры вверх, когда вода капает с потолка. Сталагмит высотой более 30 метров найден в пещере в Словакии.

Сталактиты и сталагмиты

Сталактиты и сталагмиты образуются в процессе медленного отложения минералов из капающей воды. С ними пещера становится настоящей подземной страной чудес.

В каких пещерах самые древние рисунки?

Доисторические люди жили в пещерах, которые укрывали их от плохой погоды и диких животных. В некоторых пещерах можно увидеть изображения животных, сделанные древними жителями пещер; самые известные находятся в пещерах Ласко (Франция) и Алтамира (Испания). Похожие рисунки были найдены в 2003 году в Кресвелл Крегс в Ноттингемшире (Англия).

Какие пещеры создаёт химия?

Мягкие горные породы в известняковых пещерах образуются в результате химической эрозии. Карбонат кальция в известняке взаимодействует с дождевой водой, образуя слабую кислоту, которая постепенно растворяет горную породу. Вода, просачиваясь вниз через горные породы, образует трещины и ямы, которые открываются в пещеры. Капающая вода способствует образованию и росту сталактитов и сталагмитов. Подземные водопады, реки и озёра могут вытекать на поверхность земли.

Живут ли какие-нибудь животные в пещерах?

Пещеры являются домом некоторых видов животных, таких как летучие мыши, птиц (саланган пещерный и карибский гуахаро). Эти животные устраиваются в пещерах на ночлег (летучие мыши – днём; птицы – ночью). В пещерах также живут полозы, которые охотятся на пещерных саланган, различные насекомые, в подземных озёрах – рыбы. Многие пещерные виды животных слепы, поэтому у них хорошо развиты органы обоняния и осязания. Чтобы хорошо ориентироваться в темноте, летучие мыши, например, пользуются эхолокацией.

Стриж

Некоторые птицы, например стрижи, строят свои гнёзда в пещерах.

Пещеры

Пещеры – это полые пространства под землёй или в горном массиве, которые образовались в результате размывания водой мягких горных пород. Многие пещеры такие узкие, что вних можно передвигаться только ползком, что затрудняет их исследование. Если какие-либо участки пещер затоплены, то через них проплывают, освещая путь яркой лампой. Самый большой пещерный зал называется Саравак-Чеймбер, в системе пещер в Сараваке (Малайзия). Его длина 700 метров, средняя ширина 300 метров и высота почти 70 метров от пола пещеры.

Пещера

Свет, проникающий в пещеру.

Самые глубокие пещеры:

Пещера Крубера (Грузия) – 1710 м.

Резо Жан-Бернар (Франция) – 1602 м.

Шахта Пантюхина (Грузия) – 1508 м.

Система Хуаутла (Мексика) – 1475 м.

Система дель-Трава (Испания) – 1441 м.

Веркор (Франция) – 1271 м.

Гунунг-Мулу (Борнео) – 470 м.

Карлсбадская пещера (США) – 316 м.

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