Энергия звёзд. Состав батарейки. Сила тока мультиметром.

Как работают батарейки?

Батарейки преобразуют химическую энергию в электрическую. Соединения между атомами химических веществ содержат энергию. Когда во время химической реакции связи разрушаются, их энергия переходит к электронам в атомах и заставляет их двигаться быстрее. Эти процессы происходят в батарейках, но только если электроны находят путь для движения, то есть если имеется цепь или контур, образованные проводами и составными частями.

Обычная батарейка для фонарика состоит из двух контактов, или электродов (положительного анода и отрицательного катода). И химического вещества между ними – электролита. Химические реакции между электродами и электролитом становятся причиной движения тока.

Батарейка для фонарика

Батарейка для фонарика

Где звезда черпает свою энергию?

В результате ядерной реакции возникает энергия звезды, в которой большая часть водорода превращается в гелий. Свет от звёзд расходится в виде спектра цветов (голубой, оранжево-красный, жёлтый и белый).

Что происходит внутри электростанции?

На некоторых электростанциях сжигают топливо: уголь, нефть или газ – для получения тепловой энергии. Этим теплом нагревают до кипения воду. Пар, проходящий через лопасти, как у вентилятора, или ротора турбины, заставляет их вращаться. Турбина связана с генератором, внутри которого находится магнитное поле, вращающееся вокруг обмотки, и в проводах возникает электрический ток. На гидроэлектростанции лопасти турбины приводит в движение бегущая вода. Ветротурбина производит электричество благодаря тому, что её лопасти вращаются под действием силы ветра.

От электрической станции электричество направляется по мощным кабелям высоко над землёй и под землёй. Его напряжение, измеряемое сотнями тысяч вольт, понижают трансформаторы, и на большие заводы электричество поступает с напряжением в несколько тысяч вольт, а в жилые дома, офисы и школы – всего в сотни вольт.

Электростанция

Электростанция

Переносной мультиметр служит для измерения вольт, ампер, омов и других электрических единиц. Этот прибор необходим электрикам и инженерам. Его используют для проверки безопасности оборудования. Например, он помогает узнать, не попадает ли электричество на те части станков, до которых дотрагиваются люди, чтобы избежать поражений электрическим током.

Мультиметр

Мультиметр

Как работают бытовые приборы при одинаковом потреблении электричества

На одном и том же количестве электричества эти устройства и приборы будут работать в течение следующего времени:

Проточный водонагреватель для душа

10-15 мин

Электрический обогреватель (конвектор)

1 ч

Фен при максимальной нагрузке

1-1,5 ч

Стиральная машина

2 ч

Большой морозильник

3 ч

Стандартный телевизор

3-5 ч

Одеяло с электрическим подогревом

6 ч

100-ваттная лампочка

10 ч

Электробритва

70 ч

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